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CHAPTER - 1 ELECTROSTATICS

1.1ELECTROSTATICS - FRICTIONAL ELECTRICITY
1.1.1TWO KINDS OF CHARGES
1.1.2LIKE CHARGES REPEL AND UNLIKE CHARGES ATTRACT EACH OTHER - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION
1.1.3CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS
1.1.4BASIC PROPERTIES OF ELECTRIC CHARGE
1.1.5COULOMB'S LAW
1.1.6PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
1.2ELECTRIC FIELD
1.2.1ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A POINT CHARGE
1.2.2ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO SYSTEM OF CHARGES
1.2.3ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCE
1.2.4ELECTRIC DIPOLE AND ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT
1.2.5ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE AT A POINT ON ITS AXIAL LINE
1.2.6ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE AT A POINT ON THE EQUATORIAL LINE
1.2.7ELECTRIC DIPOLE IN A UNIFORM ELECTRIC FIELS
1.2.8ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY OF AN ELECTIR DIPOLE IN AN ELECRIC FIELD
1.3ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
1.3.1ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AT A POINT DUE TO A POINT CHARGE
1.3.2ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AT A POINT DUE TO AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE
1.3.3ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY
1.3.4EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACE
1.4GAUSS'S  LAW AND ITS APPLICATIONS 
1.4.1GAUSS'S  LAW
1.4.2APPLICATIONS OF GAUSS'S LAW
1.4.3ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO AN INFINITE CHARGED PLANE SHEET
1.4.4ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO TWO PARALLEL CHARGED SHEETS
1.4.5ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO UNIFORMLY CHARGED SPHERICAL SHELL
1.4.6ELECTROSTATICS SHIELDING
1.5ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION
1.5.1CAPACITANCE OF A CONDUCTOR
1.5.2CAPACITANCE OF A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR
1.5.3DIELECTRICS AND POLARISATION
1.5.4POLARISATION OF DIELECTRIC MATERIAL
1.5.5CAPACITANCE OF A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR WITH A DIELECTRIC MEDIUM
1.5.6APPLICATIONS OF CAPCITORS
1.5.7CAPACITORS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL
1.5.8ENERGY STORED IN A CAPACITOR
1.5.9DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGES ON A CONDUCTOR AND ACTION OF POINTS
1.6LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR

CHAPTER - 2 CURRENT ELECTRICITY

2.1ELECTRIC CURRENT
2.1.1DRIFT VELOCITY AND MOBILITY
2.1.2CURRENT DENSITY
2.1.3RELATION BETWEEN CURRENT AND DRIFT VELOCITY
2.1.4OHM'S LAW
2.1.5ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND CONDUCTIVITY
2.1.6CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS IN TERMS OF RESISTIVITY
2.2SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
2.3CARBON REISITORS
2.4COMBINATION OF RESISTORS
2.4.1RESISTORS IN SERIES
2.4.2RESISTORS IN PARALLEL
2.5TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF RESISTANCE
2.6INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A CELL
2.7KIRCHOFF'S LAW
2.7.1WHEATSTONE'S LAW
2.7.2METRE BRIDGE
2.7.3DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC RESISTANCE
2.8POTENTIOMETER
2.8.1PRINCIPLE OF POTENTIOMETER
2.8.2COMPARISON OF emfs OF TWO GIVEN CELLS USING POTENTIOMETER
2.8.3COMPARISON OF emf AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
2.9ELECTRIC ENERGY AND ELECTRIC POWER
2.9.1WATTMETER
2.10CHEMICAL EFFECT OF CURRENT
2.10.1FARADAY'S LAW OF ELECTROLYSIS
2.10.2VERIFICATION OF FARADAY'S LAWS OF ELECTROLYSIS
2.11ELECTRIC CELL
2.11.1VOLTAIC CELL
2.11.2PRIMARY CELL
2.11.3DANIEL CELL
2.11.4LECLANCHE CELL
2.11.5SECONDARY CELLS
2.11.6LEAD - ACID ACCUMULATOR
2.11.7APPLICATIONS OF SECONDARY CELLS

CHAPTER - 3 EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT

3.1HEATING EFFECT : JOULE'S LAW
3.1.1VERIFICATION OF JOULE'S LAW
3.1.2SOME APPLICATIONS OF JOULE HEATING
3.1.3SEEBECK EFFECT
3.1.4NEUTRAL AND INVERSION TEMPERATURE
3.1.5PELTIER EFFECT
3.1.6THOMSON EFFECT
3.1.7THERMOPILE
3.2MAGNETIC EFFECT OF CURRENT
3.2.1MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND A STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR CARRYING CURRENT
3.2.2MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO A CIRCULAR LOOP CARRYING CURRENT
3.3BIOT - SAVART LAW
3.3.1MAGNETIC INDUCTION DUE TO INFINITELY LONG STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR CARRYING CURRENT
3.3.2MAGNETIC INDUCTION ALONG THE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR COIL CARRYING CURRENT
3.3.3TANGENT GALVANOMETER
3.4AMPERE'S CIRCUITAL LAW
3.4.1SOLENOID
3.4.2MAGNETIC INDUCTION DUE TO A LONG SOLENOID CARRYING CURRENT
3.5MAGNETIC LORENTZ FORCE
3.5.1MOTION OF A CHARGED PARTICLE IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD
3.5.2CYCLOTRON
3.6FORCE ON A CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR PLACED IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
3.6.1FORCE BETWEEN TWO LONG PARALLEL CURRENT-CARRYING CONDUCTORS
3.7TORQUE EXPERIENCED BY A CURRENT LOOP IN A UNIFORM MAGNETIC FIELD
3.7.1MOVING COIL GALVANOMETER
3.7.2POINTER TYPE MOVING COIL GALVANOMETER
3.7.3CURRENT SENSITIVITY OF A GALVANOMETER
3.7.4VOLTAGE SENSITIVITY OF A GALVANOMETER
3.7.5CONVERSION OF GALVANOMETER INTO AN AMMETER
3.7.6CONVERSION OF GALVANOMETER INTO A VOLTMETER
3.8CURRENT LOOP AS A MAGNETIC DIPOLE
3.9THE MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENT OFA REVOLVING ELECTRON

CHAPTER - 4 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENT

4.1ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
4.1.1MAGNETIC FLUX
4.1.2INDUCED emf AND CURRENT - ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
4.1.3FARADAY'S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
4.1.4LENZ'S LAW
4.1.5FLEMING RIGHT HAND RULE
4.2SELF INDUCTION
4.2.1COEFFICIENT OF SELF INDUCTION
4.2.2SELF INDUCTANCE OF A LONG SOLENOID
4.2.3ENERGY ASSOCIATED WITH AN INDUCTOR
4.2.4MUTUAL INDUCTION
4.2.5COEFFICIENT OF MUTUAL INDUCTION
4.2.6MUTUAL INDUCTION OF TWO LONG SOLENOIDS
4.3METHODS OF PRODUCING INDUCED emf
4.3.1Emf INDUCED BY CHANGING THE MAGNETIC INDUCTION
4.3.2Emf INDUCED BY CHANGING THE AREA ENCLOSED BY THE COIL
4.3.3Emf INDUCED BY CHANGING THE ORIENTATION OF THE COIL
4.4AC GENERATOR (DYNAMO) - SINGLE PHASE
4.4.1AC GENERATOR (ALTERNATOR) - THREE PHASE
4.5EDDY CURRENTS 
4.6TRANSFORMER
4.6.1LONG DISTANCE POWER TRANSMISSION
4.7ALTERNATING CURRENT
4.7.1MEASUREMENT OF AC
4.7.2AC CIRCUIT WITH RESISTOR 
4.7.3AC CIRCUIT WITH AN INDUCTOR
4.7.4AC CIRCUIT WITH A CAPACITOR
4.7.5RESISTOR, INDUCTOR AND CAPACITOR IN SERIES
4.7.6POWER IN AN AC CIRCUIT

CHAPTER - 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND WAVE OPTICS

5.1.1ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
5.1.2CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
5.1.3HERTZ EXPERIMENT
5.1.4ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
5.1.5USES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
5.2TYPES OF SPECTRA
5.2.1FRAUNHOFER LINES
5.2.2FLUROESCENCE
5.2.3PHOSPHORESCENCE
5.3THEORIES OF LIGHT
5.3.1CORPUSCULAR THEORY
5.3.2WAVE THEORY
5.3.3ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
5.3.4QUANTUM THEORY
5.4SCATTERING OF LIGHT
5.4.1TYNDAL SCATTERING
5.4.2RAMAN EFFECT
5.4.3APPLICATIONS OF RAMAN SPECTRUM
5.5WAVE FRONT
5.5.1HUYGEN'S PRINCIPLE
5.5.2REFLECTION OF A PLANE WAVE FRONT AT A PLANE SURFACE
5.5.3REFRACTION OF A PLANE WAVE FRONT AT A PLANE SURFACE
5.5.4TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION BY WAVE THEORY
5.6SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE
5.6.1COHERNT SOURCES
5.6.2PHASE DIFFERENCE AND PATH DIFFERENCE
5.6.3INTERFERENCE OF LIGHT
5.6.4CONDITION FOR SUSTAINED INTERFERENCE
5.6.5YOUNG'S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT
5.6.6EXPRESSION FOR BANDWIDTH
5.6.7COLOURS OF THIN FILMS
5.6.8NEWTON'S RINGS
5.6.9EXPRESSION FOR THE RADIUS OF THE nth DARK RING
5.6.10APPLICATIONS OF NEWTONS RINGS
5.7DIFFRACTION
5.7.1FRESNEL AND FRAUNHOFER DIFFRACTION
5.7.2DIFFRACTION GRATING
5.7.3EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE WAVELENGTH OF MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT USING A PLANE TRANSMISSION GRATING
5.7.4DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTHS OF SPECTRAL LINES OF WHITE LIGHT
5.7.5DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION
5.8POLARISATION
5.8.1POLARISATION OF TRANSVERSE WAVES
5.8.2PLANE OF VIBRATION AND PLANE OF POLARISATION
5.8.3REPRESENTATION OF LIGHT VIBRATIONS
5.8.4POLARISER AND ANALYSER
5.8.5POLARISATION BY REFLECTION
5.8.6BREWSTER'S LAW
5.8.7PILE OF PLATES
5.8.8DOUBLE REFRACTION
5.8.9TYPES OF CRYSTALS
5.8.10NICOL PRISM
5.8.11POLAROIDS
5.8.12USES OF POLAROID
5.8.13OPTICAL ACTIVITY
5.8.14SPECIFIC ROTATION

CHAPTER - 6 ATOMIC PHYSICS

6.1DISCHARGE OF ELECTRICITY THROUGH GASES AT LOW PRESSURE - DISCOVERY OF ELECTRONS
6.1.1.PROPERTIES OF CATHODE RAYS
6.1.2POSITIVE RAYS (OR) CANAL RAYS
6.1.3DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC CHARGE (e/m) OF AN ELECTRON - THOMSON'S METHOD
6.1.4DETERMINATION OF CHARGE OF AN ELECTRON - MILLIKAN'S OIL DROP EXPERIMENT
6.2ATOM MODELS
6.2.1THOMSON ATOM MODEL
6.2.2RUTHERFORD'S α - PARTICLE SCATTERING EXPERIMENT
6.2.3RUTHERFORD ATOM MODEL
6.2.4BOHR ATOM MODEL
6.2.5SPECTRAL SERIES OF HYDROGEN ATOM
6.2.6ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM
6.2.7SODIUM AND MERCURY SPECTRA
6.2.8EXCITATION AND IONIZATION POTENTIAL OF AN ATOM
6.2.9SHORTCOMINGS OF BOHR'S THEORY
6.2.10SOMMERFELD ATOM MODEL
6.3X-RAYS
6.3.1PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS - MODERN COOLIDGE TUBE
6.3.2SOFT X- RAYS AND HARD X- RAYS
6.3.3PROPERTIES OF X-RAYS
6.3.4DETECTION OF X-RAYS
6.3.5ABSORPTION OF X- RAYS
6.3.6DIFFRACTION OF X-RAYS
6.3.7LAUE EXPERIMENT
6.3.8BRAGG'S LAW FOR X-RAY DIFFRACTION
6.3.9BRAGG'S X-RAY SPECTROMETER
6.3.10X-RAY SPECTRA - CONTINUOUS AND CHARACTERISTIC X-RAY SPECTRA
6.3.11MOSELEY'S LAW
6.3.12APPLICATIONS OF X-RAYS
6.4LASER
6.4.1CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER
6.4.2SPONTANEOUS AND STIMULATED EMISSION
6.4.3RUBY LASER
6.4.4HELIUM - NEON LASER
6.4.5APPLICATIONS OF LASER
6.4.6MASER

CHAPTER - 7 DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND MATTER AND RELATIVITY

7.1PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
7.1.1HALLWACHS EXPERIMENT
7.1.2EFFECT OF INTERSITY OF INCIDENT RADIATION ON PHOTO ELECTRIC CURRENT
7.1.3EFFECT OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE ON THE PHOTOELECTRIC CURRENT 
7.1.4EFFECT OF FREQUENCY OF INCIDENT RADIATION ON STOPPING POTENTIAL 
7.1.5LAWS OF PHOTOELECTRIC EMISSION
7.1.6LIGHT WAVES AND PHOTONS
7.1.7EINSTEIN'S PHOTOELECTRIC EQUATION
7.1.8EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF EINSTEIN'S PHOTOELECTRIC EQUATION
7.2PHOTOELECTRIC CELLS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
7.3MATTER WAVES
7.3.1DE BROGLIE'S WAVELENGTH OF MATTER WAVES
7.3.2DE BROGLIE'S WAVELENGTH OF AN ELECTRON
7.3.3WAVE MECHANICAL CONCEPT OF ATOM
7.4ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
7.5RELAVITY
7.5.1CONCEPT OF SPACE
7.5.2FRAME OF REFERENCE
7.6SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY
7.6.1LENGTH CONTRACTION
7.6.2TIME DILATION
7.6.3VARIATION OF MASS WITH VELOCITY
7.7EINSTEIN'S MASS-ENERGY EQUIVALENCE

CHAPTER - 8 NUCLEAR PHYSICS

8.1NUCLEUS
8.1.1CLASSIFICATION OF NUCLEI
8.1.2GENERAL PROPERTIES OF NUCLEUS
8.2BAINBRIDGE MASS SPECTROMETER - DETERMINATION OF ISOTOPIC MASSES OF NUCLEI
8.3NUCLEAR FORCE
8.4RADIOACTIVITY
8.4.1ALPHA, BETA AND GAMMA RAYS
8.5RADIOACTIVE DISPLACEMENT LAW
8.6NEUTRON - DISCOVERY
8.6.1PROPERTIES OF NEUTRONS
8.7ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY
8.7.1APPLICATIONS OF RADIO-ISOTOPES
8.7.2BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS OF NUCLEAR RADIATIONS
8.7.3ARTIFICIAL TRANSMUTATION
8.7.4PARTICLE ACCELERATORS
8.8GEIGER - MULLER COUNTER
8.9NUCLEAR FISSION
8.9.1CHAIN REACTION
8.9.2ATOM BOMB
8.9.3NUCLEAR REACTOR
8.10NUCLEAR FUSION
8.10.1HYDROGEN BOMB
8.10.2STELLAR ENERGY
8.11COSMIC RAYS
8.12ELEMENTARY PARTICLES

CHAPTER - 9 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

9.1SEMICONDUCTORS
9.1.1ENERGY BAND IN SOLIDS
9.1.2VALENCE BAND, CONDUCTION BAND AND FORBIDDEN ENERGY GAP
9.1.3INSULATORS, SEMICONDUCTORS AND CONDUCTORS
9.1.4ELECTRONS AND HOLES IN SEMICONDUCTORS
9.1.5INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
9.1.6DOPING A SEMICONDUCTOR
9.1.7EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR
9.2PN JUNCTION DIODE
9.2.1FORWARD BIASED PN JUNCTION DIODE
9.2.2REVERSE BIASED PN JUNCTION DIODE
9.2.3SYMBOL FOR A SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE
9.2.4FORWARD BIAS CHARACTERISTICS
9.2.5REVERSE BIAS CHARACTERISTICS
9.3PN JUNCTION DIODE AS RECTIFIER
9.3.1HALF WAVE RECTIFIER
9.3.2BRIDGE RECTIFIER
9.3.3FILTER CIRCUITS AND REGULATION PROPERTY OF THE POWER SUPPLY
9.4BREAKDOWN MECHANISMS
9.5ZENER DIODE
9.6ZENER DIODE AS VOLTAGE REGULATOR
9.7LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)
9.8JUNCTION TRANSISTOR
9.9TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT SYMBOLS
9.9.1WORKING OF A PNP TRANSISTOR
9.9.2TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT CONFIGURATIONS
9.9.3CURRENT AMPLIFICATION FACTORS  α AND β AND THE RELATION BETWEEN THEM
9.9.4CHARACTERISTICS OF AN NPN TRANSISTOR IN COMMON EMITTER  CONFIGURATION
9.10TRANSISTOR AS A SWITCH
9.11TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER
9.11.1OPERATING POINT
9.11.2WORKING
9.12TRANSISTOR BIASING
9.12.1VOLTAGE DIVIDER BIAS
9.13SINGLE STAGE CE AMPLIFIER
9.14MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS
9.15FEEDBACK IN AMPLIFIERS
9.15.1PRINCIPLE OF FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER
9.15.2ADVANTAGES OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
9.16TRANSISTOR OSCILLATORS
9.16.1BARKHAUSEN CONDITION FOR OSCILLATION
9.16.2GENERATION OF SINUSOIDAL WAVES BY A TUNED LC CIRCUIT
9.16.3ESSENTIALS OF LC OSCILLATOR
9.16.4LC OSCILLATORS
9.17INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC)
9.18DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
9.18.1LOGIC GATES
9.18.2BASIC LOGIC GATES USING DISCRETE COMPONENTS
9.18.3EXCLUSIVE OR GATE (EXOR GATE)
9.18.4NAND GATE
9.18.5NOR GATE
9.18.6DE-MORGAN'S THEOREMS
9.18.7NAND AND NOR AS UNIVERSAL GATES
9.18.8BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
9.18.9SIMPLIFICATION OF BOOLEAN EXPRESSION
9.19OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP - AMP)
9.19.1CIRCUIT SYMBOL AND PIN-OUT CONFIGURATION OF AN OP-AMP
9.19.2BASIC OP-AMP CIRCUITS
9.19.3SUMMING AMPLIFIER
9.19.4DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER
9.20ELECTRONIC MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
9.20.1CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (CRO)
9.20.2MULTIMETER

CHAPTER - 10 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

10.1PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
10.1.1GROUND (SURFACE) WAVE PROPAGATION
10.1.2SPACE WAVE PROPAGATION
10.1.3SKY WAVE (OR) IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION
10.2MODULATION
10.2.1AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM)
10.2.2FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)
10.3ANTENNAS
10.4RADIO TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION
10.4.1RADIO TRANSMISSION
10.4.2RADIO RECEPTION
10.5TELEVISION
10.5.1VIDICON CAMERA TUBE
10.5.2SCANNING AND SYNCHRONISING
10.6MONOCHROME PICTURE TUBE
10.7MONOCHROME TV TRANSMISSION
10.8MONOCHROME TV RECEIVER
10.9RADAR
10.9.1PRINCIPLE OF RADAR
10.9.2TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION OF RADAR
10.10ANALOG COMMUNICATION AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
10.10.1ANALOG COMMUNICATION 
10.10.2DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
10.10.3MODEM
10.10.4FAX (OR) FACSIMILE
10.10.5WIRE AND CABLE
10.10.6FIBER OPTICAL COMMUNICATION
10.10.7SATELLITE COMMUNICATION